Struttura della coscienza e Sapere Assoluto. La Unruhe nella «Fenomenologia dello Spirito».


The aim of this article is to consider the connection between the structure of consciousness and absolute knowing, starting from the notion of Unruhe, “restlessness”. This word has two different meanings in the Phenomenology: 1) in the Introduction, Hegel uses it in order to define the experience of natural consciousness; 2) in the last chapter, it refers to the dialectical movement of the Concept. These two different meanings are strictly connected. The Unruhe that Hegel recognizes in every experience of consciousness implies an original conception of the relation between consciousness and its objects and between consciousness and truth. These aspects have been pointed out by the french interpretations of the Phenomenology, from Kojève and Hyppolite up to Lacan and Foucault. This restlessness of consciousness derives from the spiritual element (Geist) that appears progressively in every experience of consciousness itself. This first meaning of Unruhe is therefore based on the second one. Then absolute knowing, that is, the overcoming of every difference between consciousness and its object, doesn’t imply the disappearing of restlessness. On the contrary, Unruhe actually finds in absolute knowing its strongest expression, as essential restlessness of the Concept. The Unruhe that every consciousness goes through is therefore the sign of its belonging to the life of Spirit.